Long ago, psychologists noted a strange trait of people to set non-motivated limits for solving a new task. Usually, the limits are produced from a conventional algorithm of solving old tasks, which are similar to some extent but, at the same time, significantly differ from them. The results of such limit are pointlessly spent time and lack of the result. Probably, the same situation is often typical of the research of some new phenomena, when the observer could miss something completely.
E. M. Bazelyan, Dr. Sc. (Eng.), Professor;
Krzhizhanovsky Energy Institute, Moscow;
recognized Russian Expert in Earthing and Lightning Protection
Almost any reader of this article has visited the high-voltage laboratory and seen the long air gap tests. To provide their breakthrough, a pulse voltage generator (PVG) of a megavolt level is used. One terminal of PVG is earthed, while the other one is attached to a high-voltage electrode forming a discharge gap. When accumulation tanks of PVG are charged, high voltage is supplied to the gap.
In calculations, the storm cell is usually modelled with a charged vertical dipole. Its lower charge is typically negative and takes the volume with a radius up to 1 km. For middle latitudes, the center of a negative charge is located at the height of about 3 km. The center of the upper positive charge is about twice higher.
In the calculation example shown inFig. 2, a potential distribution with the thunderstorm cell charge of 15 C is shown. This is probably an average charge, although it has provided the potential more than 300 MV relative to the ground. The potential is reduced along with the increase of the distance from the thunderstorm cell.
In this chapter, we can only talk about aircrafts, because jets cannot get to the ground structures.