Grounding and lightning protection: questions and issues arising in the design process (webinar series)

This webinar series is intended for professionals designing and operating modern lightning protection solutions. The webinars provide answers to the most important and controversial issues in this area.

There is a situation of "interregnum" in the Russian lightning protection business, as two national standards are in force today — RD 34.21.122-87 and SO-153-34.21.122-2003, which often contradict one another. To make the situation even more confusing, IEC 62305 lightning protection standard is slowly gaining acceptance in Russia. There are also industry-specific lightning protection standards often prepared by non-specialists. Even qualified designers have difficulties in gaining insights into the situation.

Audience: designers, electricians, operation service specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required)
Price: it's free
Speaker: professor E. M. Bazelyan
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes each

E. M. Bazelyan

E. M. Bazelyan, D.Eng, professor; 
Krzhyzhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, Moscow; 
a renowned Russian expert in grounding and lightning protection
 


Webinars schedule

Webinar Series
Grounding and lightning protection: questions and issues arising in the design process (webinar series) 
Speaker: Prof. E. M. Bazelyan, Krzhyzhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, Moscow.
Date Webinar Series
International electrotechnical standard IEC 62305

 Speaker: Dr. Marek Loboda, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
Issues and challenges of regulatory documents 25.06.14  
Private housing protection 30.07.14  
What SPDs are designed for? 03.09.14  
Answers to all questions! 08.10.14  
Grounding devices calculation 19.11.14  
Designing lightning protection for the oil and gas industry 24.12.14  
Features of high-rise buildings lightning protection 28.01.15  
  04.02.15 General Principles, IEC 62305-1
  04.03.15 Risk Management, IEC 62305-2
Methods of active influence on the lightning strike. Are ESE lightning rods effective and feasible? 18.03.15  
  08.04.15 Protecting structures against damage, IEC 62305-3
  13.05.15 Protecting electrical and electronic systems, IEC 62305-4
Answering your questions about grounding and lightning protection 24.06.15  
How to choose lightning rods after all? 25.11.15  
Questions frequently asked by designers (lecture) 08.12.15  
Lightning studies and protection in Krzhyzhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, Moscow (lecture) 20.01.16  
Frequently asked questions about SPDs 10.02.16  
Hydrocarbon fuel enterprises lightning protection of (seminar) 08.06.16  
The origin of lightning protection zones, their actual capabilities and a negative impact on the optimization of external lightning protection spring 2016*  

*Webinar dates and topics are subject to change

 

1. Webinar: Issues and challenges of regulatory documentation
(held on June 25, 2014, at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

The first webinar is intended to provide the analysis of the national regulatory framework. We will compare the requirements for categorization and reliability of lightning protection set forth in a variety of regulations and standards, analyze the techniques of lightning protection design and assess the effectiveness of protection zones achievable during practical application.

Particular attention will be paid to the use of multiple lightning rods and mesh cages especially popular among designers, as well as the requirements for the grounding of lightning devices. For an unknown reason, such requirements are scarcely highlighted in the regulatory framework and are not technically justified.

Today’s lightning protection market situation encourages us to review a physical and legal basis for the use of ESE lightning rods in various active lightning protection projects.
Specific technical proposals for the choice of means and methods of external and internal lightning protection will be discussed during future webinars.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 1080p in a full-screen mode.

2. 2. Webinar: Protecting the private housing
(held on July 30, 2014, at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

We will start with lightning risk assessment for individual buildings, and then specify the method to calculate the expected number of lightning strikes into a facility. This is an easy task when the building has a simple configuration. But if the height of its individual parts is different, there are a number of other facilities having the comparable height or the surrounding terrain is complex, then computational difficulties may arise.

After that, we will talk about the electromagnetic interferences of the lightning strike affecting electric circuits inside buildings. They may occur much more frequently than a direct lightning strike, and their consequences are often devastating. That's why the presentation will be held in a reverse order, starting with details about internal lightning protection.

When reviewing the external lightning protection, we will focus on protecting the roof of a building against direct lightning strikes. Modern approaches to this issue will be discussed on the example of widely used roofing materials having a low metal thickness, which can be definitely burned through by the lightning strike. Special attention will be paid to low-height air terminals, including mesh cages.
The drain of the lightning current is not a problem when the walls of a building are made of non-flammable materials. But in the case, if the finishing materials are inflammable, then the task becomes more complicated and requires a special analysis. Even a more noteworthy problem is arranging safe down conductors in places where people can touch their surfaces.

Finally, we will discuss the grounding of residential buildings. Here we'll talk about the use of concrete foundations and the arrangement of additional ground loops in low conductivity soils.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

3. Webinar: What SPDs are designed for
(held on September 3, 2014 at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

The question may seem rhetorical but it is not. The abbreviation of the device itself implies it is designed for surge protection. Manufacturers are trying to instill the idea that the design of internal lightning protection should be limited to the correct deployment of SPDs in the circuits of the facility to be protected from surges caused by the lightning strike. As a result, the number of such devices in modern technical facilities can be up to several thousand. This is really good for firms offering lightning protection but the answer is not that simple when it comes to the protected facility. Any SPD is connected into an electrical circuit designed to perform certain process functions. With a large number of such devices, the reliability of circuit operation is determined by the reliability of an SPD, which is not absolute. This situation is hardly acceptable.

When it comes to protecting against electromagnetic interferences, the installation of SPDs must be considered an extremity. It is reasonable to apply them when it is impossible to limit electromagnetic effects of lightning with the rational installation of lightning rods, effective current drainage into the soil through the system of electrodes, the rational layout of surface and underground electrical circuits of the facility, primarily microelectronic circuits. Electromagnetic shielding of critical circuits plays a very important role.

The correct choice of SPDs is not always an easy task. Today, a catalog of SPDs in a modern actively operating company is typically a multi-page book of a large format. You should be able to correctly assess the main parameters of a protective device and its compatibility with the protected electrical circuit. The design also plays an important role. In modern industrial facilities, SPDs need to be installed in hazardous locations, in aggressive chemical environments and at high pressures. All this should be considered by the designer.

The operational control of SPD current status is also a matter of a separate study, especially if the protected facility has a large area and there are a lot of protective elements in its electrical circuits. Special automated systems are offered for that purpose. It is important to assess the feasibility of their application since costs are assumed to be significant.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

4. Webinar: Answers to all questions! 
(held on October 8, 2014, at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

Grounding in lightning protection only seems an easy task. In fact, there are much more issues than you can imagine. For example, any attempt to influence the efficiency of lightning rod operation by changing its resistance causes no significant effect. With a grounding resistance of 1, 10, 100 and even 1000 Ohms, a lightning rod functions almost the same way. 
The correct choice of grounding resistance is necessary only for the safe dissipation of the lightning current in the soil. This is the reason why the requirements to the exact value of lightning rod grounding resistance are so vague. The seminar will start with the analysis of these requirements.
​​​​​​

Things are getting even interesting further on! 
In practice, a lightning protection specialist faces two most common tasks: to precisely calculate a grounding device and correctly measure its grounding resistance after installation or during operation. It is important to understand what the soil parameters are needed for the calculation: do they depend on the structure and geometry of the grounding device, and if they do, then in what way exactly?

It is clear that the grounding resistance measurement does not cause problems when the ground electrode system is located outside of a built-up area. But if free space is limited, it is necessary to resort to methodological tricks, which are not always justified. Their analysis will allow giving specific recommendations for the measurement procedure.

PUE recommends connecting ground electrodes having different designations into a single loop. However, the customer often requires an autonomous grounding device for especially sensitive equipment. In fact, there is always a galvanic link between even rather remote grounding devices in the conductive soil. How to evaluate the link’s effect? What lightning currents can actually penetrate the autonomous ground electrode system?

The current-voltage characteristics of almost any soil are not linear. As the current goes up into a kiloampere range, grounding resistance can fall significantly. Let's study the mechanism of this decrease in order to accurately estimate the practical significance of the effect.

Various guidelines offer a lot of recommendations to improve grounding characteristics using by installing vertical electrodes locally. As a rule, these recommendations are ignored in the process of quantitative assessment. What is the actual effect and what can be expected from the deep-laid ground electrode systems?

And finally, we will come back to the issue of step and touch voltages because they not only crucial for electrical safety but also define the levels of electromagnetic interference caused by pulse currents in the soil.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

5. Webinar: Grounding devices calculation
(held on November 19, 2014 at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

Most reference books suggest that ground electrode systems are to be calculated based on their utilization ratio. 
Such calculations often come down to the parallel addition of grounding resistances of elementary electrodes (vertical rods or horizontal buses) and then dividing the result by the mentioned ratio. As a rule, specialists cannot assess the accuracy of the calculation, since the value of a shielding factor value taken from reference tables is much less than one, and the origin of the values is not disclosed by the authors of the reference books.

The theory of grounding devices calculation in the conditions of a constant or slowly changing current has been well developed a long time ago. It is completely identical to the theory of electrostatic charge field calculation and uses the methodological basis developed in the beginning of the last century. In fact, the problem boils down to determining the potential of the grounding device, taking into account all the current sources in the soil. The principle of superposition and the method of mirror reflections are most effective, opening the possibility to accurately making allowance for the influence of the soil-to-air boundary and the layered soil structure.

A rigorous solution for the majority of practical problems, of course, requires the use of software technologies, and the development of algorithms and software products. These questions are difficult to answer during a short webinar. Therefore, the analysis of the fundamental properties of grounding devices and the assessment of their quantitative characteristics, which can be highlighted in lay terms, are of paramount importance. It is needed to assay the effect of the electrode placement depth, the influence of two-layer soil, and the shielding effect in a multi-electrode structure.

Wherever possible, methodological approaches to assess the grounding resistance manually are offered; the limits of application of semi-empirical calculation relations are set. Special attention will be paid to the calculation of grounding resistance of reinforced concrete structures, where neighboring metal reinforcement elements are used as grounding electrodes.

In conclusion, we will briefly highlight the methodology of calculating impulse responses for some much-hyped ground electrode systems.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.
 

6. Webinar: Designing Lightning Protection for the oil and gas industry
(held on December 24, 2014 at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

The goal of the webinar is to analyze regulatory requirements for the lightning protection of facilities with large volumes of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuel for their sufficiency to ensure a reliable operation in thunderstorm conditions, the feasibility and effectiveness of measures specified by various standards and ways to improve external lightning protection.
The following topics will be discussed:

  • requirements for the protection from direct lightning strikes, their real effectiveness and feasibility, the optimization of lightning rods system;

- ground electrode systems and lightning rods:  how they influence the reliability of protected facilities and help maintain electrical safety;

  •  the problem of protection against sparks sliding on the ground surface;
  •  unfinished discharge from the structural elements of a facility during thunderstorm conditions -  are there any effective means to overcome them;
  • The transfer of high potential over major pipelines: is there a high danger for the facility and its personnel? How to combine the tools of protection against inbound waves with the electrochemical protection?

We will make changes in the webinar format by dividing the material into several semantic blocks and arranging a brief discussion after each of them.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

7. Webinar: Features of high-rise buildings lightning protection
(held on January 28, 2015 at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

From garden houses to high-rise buildings.

High-rise buildings have become a trend in Russia although considering our huge territories with poorly build-up density they hardly seem feasible. One way or another, high-rise buildings are today’s reality. The higher is a structure, the more lightning strikes it attracts. It is more accurate to say that the frequency of lightning strikes increases because they not only hit high-rise buildings but are also initiated on their tops, moving toward the charged cell of a thundercloud. If a building is higher than 200 m, it gets stricken by the downward lightning 2 or 3 times a year, and if the building is higher, the number of strikes doesn't increase. Only the number of reverse lightning increases (from the building to the cloud upward). Downward and upward lightning strikes behave fundamentally differently. The trajectory of the downward lightning strikes is poorly predictable, as they can hit the side surface of a high-rise building far below its top. Any high-altitude lightning rods are ineffective for the protection against downward lightning strikes. Upward lightning strikes usually start from the highest component of the structure, especially if its top has a small radius.

During the webinar, we will discuss the protection of high-rise buildings from direct lightning strikes; special attention will be paid to the equipment installed on roofs. In addition, we will study the electromagnetic impact of lightning current on the internal electrical circuits of high-rise buildings; we will analyze the special features of grounding device at buildings.

Finally, it is important to track the influence of high-rise buildings on their immediate surroundings under stormy conditions. Two points are most important here: the consequences of attracting a lightning strike resulting in the virtual increase of intensity of storm activity locally and a more frequent excitation of high voltages when the lightning current dissipates in the soil, which increases the risk of bringing ф high electrical potential into neighboring buildings and life hazard to humans and animals by the step voltage.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

8. Webinar: Methods of active influence on the lightning strike. Are ESE lightning rods effective and feasible?
(held on March 18, 2015 at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

Are active lightning rods really active?

Is it possible to control the point of the lightning strike? Any expert will answer "yes" to this question without doubt. But he or she will start hesitating  if you add a phrase '' ... for the purpose of real-life lightning protection" as in this case you will need to consider the costs of control activities, their reliability, running costs and compatibility with the process designation of the protected facility.

The physical mechanism of actions intended to control the lightning strike is clear. The point of lightning strike is determined by the channel of a counter-leader that starts from a facility located on the ground surface. In order to ensure the effective protection against direct lightning strikes, it is necessary to initiate a counter-leader from the lightning rod as soon as possible or to delay its formation at the protected facility. The required levels of control actions are also known. Unfortunately, they are feasible for research purposes only, but not very suitable for the practical lightning protection. That's why lightning protection regulations do not pay due attention to the active lightning protection in Russia and in the vast majority of technologically developed countries.

Despite this fact, ESE lightning rods are advertised very aggressively. Even regulatory bodies in Russia are involved in the advertising process. Such a commercial activity clearly becomes socially dangerous and needs to be restrained.

During the webinar, we will give a detailed analysis of the lightning strike control actions, and show actual data about their capabilities gathered during field observations, laboratory studies and theoretical review.

We will also discuss the implications of active lightning rods usage including the most popular type - ESE lightning rods at existing industrial facilities.

Finally, we will consider the opportunities of harmonizing ESE lightning rod concept with the Russian lightning protection regulatory framework and assess the prospects of future developments.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

9. Webinar: Answering your questions about the grounding and lightning protection
(held on June 24, 2015, at 11:00 MSK)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

Having arranged eight webinars, we received a lot of questions and points for discussion and sorted them into groups. Here are some of them:
1. Energy facilities and substations:

  • The design and structure of lightning rods installed on buildings with reinforced concrete roofing and walls finished with sandwich panels on electrical substations (sometimes, there are no main walls behind the sandwich panels). Calculation method.
  • External grounding on electrical substations (ESS). Calculation methods (not related to software).

2. Telecommunication facilities:

  • Designing lightning protection and grounding for server rooms and data centers.
  • Designing lightning protection and grounding of antenna-mast structures.

3. Sensitive medical equipment:

  • Why you don’t a separate ground loop to protect medical equipment.
  • Design features of supersensitive device grounding.

4. Lightning protection of residential buildings:

  • Lightning protection of public and residential buildings with accessible roofs (with swimming pools, cafeterias etc. arranged on roofs).
  • What are recommendations for the lightning protection of helipads located on the roofs of high-rise buildings?

5. Other questions and topics for discussion:

  • Primary and secondary equipotential bonding in a building.
  • Lightning protection of gas turbines.
  • Design features of grounding devices for liquefied natural gas complexes, including stationary and mobile gas stations for automobile and railway transport.
 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

10. Webinar: How to choose lightning rods after all? 
(held on November 25, 2015 at 11:00 MSC)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

This seminar was planned as an open discussion with the developers of IEC 62305 lightning protection standard. The preliminary agreement was received about a year ago when Russian-language webinars on this standard were planned. The ground for the discussion was a lot of discrepancies that emerged between this standard and the national regulations. The need for an open discussion was out of question, since a number of fundamental issues related to the procedure of lightning rods, down conductors and grounding devices selection still lack a clear solution.

A questionnaire concerning the choice of the main parameters under IEC and its implications was prepared. It was assumed that these issues would be a basis for the discussion. Unfortunately, neither the IEC speaker nor his colleagues found it possible to discuss the offered topic on the webinars. The problem remained open.

We are not able to reproduce the logics of the EIC specialists, which allowed them to accept specific guidelines. We can only perform the analysis of consequences that come out of their instructions and compare the obtained information to the experience gained during operation of external lightning protection. Such analysis will form the basis of the planned webinar.

We will focus on choosing the type and height of the air terminals. In this regard, EIC regulations fundamentally differ from the Russian practice. The evaluation of prospects for reducing the height of lightning rods due to the use multi-rod and multi-wire protective systems is of a special importance. In this regard, the domestic design techniques open up possibilities, which were not accounted in the EIC standard. The efficiency forecast of lighting control actions, which can be carried out under the national methodological instructions is also very important. These tasks are not available for the EIC standard.

The webinar will also cover regulatory instructions for the grounding devices of lightning rods. The question is equally important for IEC and Russian standards because both lack formal logics.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

 

11. Lecture: Answering designers' questions
(held on December 08, 2015)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance service specialists
Duration: 45 minutes

Ten webinars with Prof. E.M. Bazelyan help attendees find solutions to their important question about the design of grounding and lightning protection. But even ten webinars are not enough to answer all the questions. So we've collected questions from designers and invited Professor E. Bazelyan to answer them. Watch the video!
Questions answered by the professor:

  • How to make two separate ground loops at a limited area (20 x 20 m)?

- Let’s assume that a common ground loop for lightning protection and protective grounding was made, and a lightning strikes into the lightning rod. Will the lightning current penetrate to the ground bus via the loop? What consequences can be expected? Will SPD help in this case?

  • In accordance with paragraph 36 of Health Facilities Design Guidelines (a supplement to SNIP 2.08.02-89), a separate grounding device is required for a functional grounding of medical equipment (X-ray machines, etc.) How to keep a distance of 15 meters in this case?
  • How to design the lightning protection of a building with a gas pipe pipeline installed at a distance of 10 meters from it?
  • Are decorative lightning rods effective?
  • How to carry out the lightning protection of an open area where a crane is working?
  • Is it possible to use a foundation based on screw piles as a grounding system?
  • What happens if I install electrodes at a distance of less than 1 meter from the foundation, contrary to SO 153-34 para. 3.2.3.2?
  • What document allows the use of steel for the grounding of high-voltage installations?
  • How to protect a ground pipeline from the lightning strike? Do I need to install a free-standing lightning rod near a natural gas pipeline valve?
 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

 

12. Lecture: Lightning studies and lightning protection in Krzhyzhanovsky Power Engineering Institute 
(held on January 20, 2016)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance service specialists
Duration: 124 minutes

The first studies of lightning and the development of lightning protection methods began over 250 years ago. Despite this, modern lightning protection still leaves many open questions.
Mr. Edward Bazelyan shares his knowledge on the history of lightning protection in Russia and in the world, provides exciting historical facts, describes unique experiments with the lightning and world records in physics, as well as explains how modern lightning protection systems work. This video lecture is for information purposes only and will be exciting and useful for designers, electrical installers, researchers, technical students, and other listeners whose work and studies are associated with lightning protection and grounding.
Navigation through the video lecture:

  • The first scientific study of lightning, timecode 00:03:02
    (Mid-18th century, studies by Benjamin Franklin and Mikhail Lomonosov's feedback on these studies)
  • The beginning of studies on the physics of long sparks, timecode 00:06:10
    (late 19th - early 20th century, the theory of avalanches by John Sealy Edward Townsend; the question of how the long spark channel is developed from the cloud to the ground.)
  • Studies of long spark physics in the USSR, timecode 00:07:55
    (The study of long spark physics initiated in the 1930 by Gleb Krzhyzhanovsky; research by Ilya Stekolnikov, the discovery of the long spark leader)
  • Experiments by Vadim Komelkov, timecode 00:12:51
    (long spark studies, an unexpected business trip)
  •  Laboratory’s activities during World War II and the post-war time, timecode 00:17:52  (The studies of lightning during World War II and thereafter, the construction of a 3,000,000 V surge generator; the era of world records, the creation a pulse oscillograph, the development of non-inductive cylindrical bridges, the pursuit for the perfect current leader recordings, the creation of a Russian electro-optical converter).
  • Laboratory’s activities during the late 1950s - 1960s, timecode. 00:24:02
    (a period when Edward Bazelyan joins Krzhyzhanovsky Institute, a new level of the laboratory's operations, lightning simulation, studying the surge front and its changes).
  • The leader mechanism of sparks and lightning, timecode 00:35:35
  • The role of the streamer zone and the space charge sheath, timecode 00:37:02
  • The elementary leader theory, timecode 00:38:58
  • The history of Russian protection zones, timecode 00:40:05
  • Lightning path, timecode 00:42:17
    (which way the lightning strike is to take - a short or a long one? Krzhyzhanovsky Institute statistical method development)
  • The methodical basis to calculate the number of lightning strikes into overhead lines, timecode 00:45:41
  • Registering lightning strikes into the Ostankino TV Tower, timecode 00:47:06
  • Krzhyzhanovsky Institute statistical methodology capabilities and its application, timecode 00:48:23
  • Lightning crown research by Valery Popkov, timecode 00:52:14
  • "Triggered Lightning" experiment, timecode 00:55:33
    (the charge cloud)
  • The research of corona discharge in an electric field of a thunderstorm cloud, timecode 00:55:33
  • The application of corona discharge studies, timecode 1:01:10
    (dissipation array systems that prevent the formation of a counter-leader and, consequently, a direct lightning strike into a facility)
  • How active lightning protection actually works, timecode 1:06:50
  • Lightning protection grounding, timecode 1:10:39
    (electrical fields and the behavior of the lightning current in the soil)
  • Collaboration between Krzhyzhanovsky Institute, High Temperatures Institute of RAS and RF SRC TRINITY, timecode 1:14:07
    (the creation of surge generator with a voltage of 2 mV and an energy of 4 MJ, as well as studies carried out using this generator)
  • Closing words, timecode 1:19:08
    (Lightning protection conference, regulatory documents and important tasks of lightning protection, well-wishing to the younger generation of researchers)
 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

 

13. Webinar: Answering your questions about SPDs
(held on February 10, 2016, at 11:00)

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes

This year we are holding another webinar on the use of SPDs to limit the surge in low-voltage electrical circuits. The reason for this is numerous questions asked by internal lightning protection designers. The reason is trivial enough. Russian lightning protection regulations (only SO 153-34.21.122-2003 instructions, to be precise) cover the practical application of SPDs in very general terms. There are no specific requirements there, so designers are left alone with the recommendations of SPD manufacturers. The situation is vague. Manufacturers are primarily interested in the mass sales of products that are the easiest to manufacture and sell at a high price. For this purpose, they issue brochures with the basic assessment of storm surge levels and lightning currents coming through SPDs, which clearly tend to turn designers' attention to the "right" security elements.

Due to today’s serious financial problems in Russia, such a situation can hardly be considered acceptable. An evidence-based guidance for the selection of SPDs based on the reliable calculations of thunderstorm surges and current loads is desperately needed. The upcoming seminar will lay a basis for solving this problem.

It is worth reminding once again that the placement of SPDs in an electrical circuit is a very potent tool. Its use is justified only in the case if all other possibilities to limit dangerous lightning effects through the installation of external lightning protection devices have been exhausted. Much-hyped typical examples with hundreds of SPDs installed in the circuits of the protected facility cannot be considered a viable solution, as any SPD is quite a complex appliance with a very specific reliability value. Its very presence in the circuit may adversely affect the reliability of the whole facility and its technical specifications.

Designers should always pursue a task of minimizing the number of SPDs. This is hardly achievable without a reliable assessment of hazardous lightning effects on the protected equipment and their comparison with the permissible parameters specified by the manufacturer.

To demonstrate the above, we used specific questions asked by the audience. Most of these questions were answered either in the form specific recommendations or as guidelines to the quantitative method of solving the problem.

 

Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

14. Seminar: Lightning protection of hydrocarbon fuel companies
(held on June 8, 2016)

Audience: designers, engineers, the representatives of oil and gas companies

 

14. Seminar: Lightning protection of hydrocarbon fuel companies-1  14. Seminar: Lightning protection of hydrocarbon fuel companies-2

On June 8, we hosted a seminar for design engineers, where Professor Edward Bazelyan clarified many important issues in the field of lightning protection. Mr. Bazelyan also answered many important questions asked by the audience.
Talking points discussed at the seminar:

  1. Lightning strike parameters important to consider in the design of lightning protection.
  2. Russian regulations. What can designers learn from them?
  3. External and internal lightning protection as a single unit. The problems of internal lightning protection should be addressed already at the stage of air terminal selection.
  4. The effectiveness of an air terminal protective action. Why designers should seek to use multiple lightning rods and catenary wires.
  5. The problem of selecting multiple lightning rods. How ZANDZ.com project will help solve the problem.
  6. Are much-hyped ESE lightning rods useless?
  7. What is DAS used for and is it effective?
  8. Down conductors as the main tool to weaken the magnetic field in a protected volume.
  9. How to assess the hazard of electromagnetic interferences?
  10. Requirements to the ground electrode systems. Why is it important to know their surge characteristics?
  11. The risk of sparks sliding on the ground surface. The tools of protection against them.
  12. What grounding device test methods can Russian experts apply?
  13. The risk of incomplete discharges in the atmospheric electric field. Is there a constructive solution?
  14. Is using SPDs good or bad? When it is necessary to install SPDs and what requirements should they meet?

Please watch the seminar video for details!
 

minar video, part 1
 
Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

 


 
Seminar video, part 2
 
Recommended streaming quality is 720p in full-screen mode.

 

 

Webinar: The origin of lightning protection zones, their actual capabilities and a negative impact on the optimization of external lightning protection
(Spring 2016)*

Audience: designers, electricians, maintenance services specialists
Location: online (Internet access from your computer is required) 
Price: it's free!
Webinar duration: 60-90 minutes


See the full list of webinars with leading experts on a separate page.


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